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    中亞咸海流域水域面積平均以每年1048平方公里速度下降

    2019-08-08 16:49:32 來源:中國新聞網
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      中新社烏魯木齊8月8日電 (記者 孫亭文)記者8日從中國科學院新疆生態與地理研究所獲悉,最新研究結果顯示,咸海流域的水域面積從2000年的2.5%下降到2014年的1.5%,平均以每年1048平方公里的速度下降,尤其是咸海的水體面積縮小最快。

      咸海是位于中亞的內陸咸水湖,坐落于哈薩克斯坦和烏茲別克斯坦交界處,原為世界第四大水體。近幾十年來,隨著人類經濟社會活動強度和規模的不斷增大,咸海流域的生態環境發生了巨大變化,咸海大面積萎縮,成為世界生態災難區。水土資源分布的不平衡及不合理利用是中亞生態環境惡化的重要原因。

      針對咸海流域水土資源利用效率問題,中國科學院新疆生態與地理研究所荒漠與綠洲生態國家重點實驗室陳亞寧研究員團隊利用MODIS遙感數據和中亞水資源利用效率監測(WUEMoCA)數據庫,研究了咸海流域主要作物種植結構、種植面積以及棉花、小麥、水稻、玉米、果樹、蔬菜等主要作物的產量,系統分析了咸海流域過去15年(2000-2014年)水土資源開發及其利用效率在時間和空間上的變化。

      研究結果顯示,咸海流域的水域面積從2000年的2.5%下降到2014年的1.5%,平均以每年1048平方公里的速度下降,尤其是咸海的水體面積縮小最快。咸海流域的主要作物棉花、小麥、水稻、玉米總面積約占整個灌溉農田面積的49%,棉花面積約占23%。小麥的年均單產最高,為4.16噸/公頃;其次是水稻2.27噸/公頃;棉花單產最低,為2.22噸/公頃。空間分布上,錫爾河沿岸的灌區大于阿姆河沿岸灌區,上游灌區大于下游灌區,其中,費爾干納谷地灌區和塔什干灌區的土地資源利用效率最高。

      據研究團隊介紹,咸海流域作物的水資源生產力研究顯示,棉花的水資源生產力最高,年均消耗每立方水創造0.727美元價值;其次是水稻,年均消耗每立方水創造0.268美元;小麥的水資源生產力最低,為年均消耗每立方水創造0.191美元。空間分布上,三種主要作物較高的水資源生產力同樣集中在西北部的費爾干納灌區和塔什干灌區。(完)

    (編輯:冀江彤)
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